This document is intended to answer many general questions about RMS Titanic and issues that surround it.
RMS TITANIC BACKGROUND INFORMATION
- World’s Largest Ship in 1912
The Titanic, the largest ship afloat at the time of her maiden voyage was actually one of three sister ships. The Olympic, Titanic, and, Britannic were very similar in size (approx 882ft long) and accommodations. The Titanic was the middle sister weighing in at 46,328 gross tons, only slightly larger than the Olympic at 45,323 gross tons. The Britannic was the largest of the three,weighing in at 48,158 gross tons. The extra tonnage of the Britannic was due to modifications made in light of the Titanic’s disaster. Although surpassed in size in later years by other liners (e.g. Queen Mary 1019ft, Queen Elizabeth 1031ft and the present day Queen Elizabeth 2 963ft) for their time, the Olympic class of liners represented the largest vessels ever constructed.
- The Unsinkable Claim
The White Star Line, owners of the Titanic, and also the builders, Harland and Wolff, never publicly stated that the Titanic was unsinkable (although a contemporary White Star brochure stated that the Olympic class of liners was “designed_to be unsinkable” -Phil Hayward) it was the public and the press who marveled at the many lifesaving devices such as automatic watertight doors and bulkheads. White Star and Harland and Wolff never believed in christening any of their ships and was a main cause of superstition. At the launching one worker was overheard to say “They just builds her and shoves her in!” Over twenty-two tons of tallow and soap was spread one inch thick on the ways to better help the ship slide easily into the water during the launching the Titanic reached a speed of twelve knots during the launch, stopping in about her own length dragging chains to slow her down.
- The Titanic Band/Did The Band Really Play Nearer my God To Thee Before Sinking?
The Titanic’s bandsmen and the music they played during the sinking constitute one of the most fascinating subjects connected with the disaster. The mere thought of eight men standing back from the lifeboats and playing music with the intention of calming their fellow passengers’ fears grips our collective imagination. Even so, there is disagreement about the details surrounding the bandsmens’ heroism – namely, exactly which pieces of music did they play and what was the name of their final song? Numerous survivor accounts tell us that the bandsmen started out playing ragtime, but legend has always had it that the hymn “Nearer, My God to Thee” was the very last piece of music played on board the Titanic; indeed, many, many survivors reported having heard this hymn being played. Uncertainty arises, however, when we learn that there are three different versions of the above hymn, and that the same versions are not commonly played in both England and America (although British and American citizens who habitually attended religious services during their overseas travels were undoubtedly familiar with more than one version of the hymn.) If “Nearer, My God to Thee” *was* played on board the Titanic, though, which version was it? We don’t know.
Other candidates for the bandsmens’ final piece of music include either the hymn “Autumn” or the popular tune “Songe d’ Automne.” The confusion here lies in the fact that Marconi operator Harold Bride reported having heard the song “Autumn” being played while he was swimming away from the Titanic. Did Bride mean the *hymn* of that name or did he instead mean the secular song which was popular in 1912? Again, we don’t know.
One thing we do know, however, is that Harold Bride heard music being played right after the Titanic’s bridge submerged. There is little doubt that the increasing slope of the deck would soon have caused Titanic’s bandsmen to cease playing their music and try instead to keep their footing as long as possible.
While it lasted, though, the music was magnificent.
- How Did Captain Smith Die?
Depending upon whom you believe, Capt. E.J. Smith met his death in one of several different ways. Unsubstantiated rumors had it that, right before the end, the Captain raised a pistol to his head and pulled the trigger. On the other hand, several surviving crewmen reported having seen Smith swimming toward a lifeboat with a baby in his arms. The last *reliable* sighting of Captain Smith was made by Marconi operator Harold Bride, who saw Smith dive into the sea just as Collapsible B was levered off the roof of the officers’ quarters and fell down onto the boat deck right before the bridge submerged. Captain Smith’s last recorded words were variously reported as ” Be British Boys, Be British!” or “Every Man for Himself!” or – after supposedly delivering that baby to a lifeboat – “Good-Bye Boys, I’m going to follow the ship!”
4.1 What Time Did Titanic Hit The Iceberg? What Were The Conditions That Night? Why Did It Hit The Iceberg When It Was Turning Away?
The night of 14 April was a cold, moonless night with calm seas with no clouds in the sky. Survivors commented they had never seen the sea so calm or smooth. Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee were on duty as lookouts. Titanic was going about 22.5 knots and then at almost 11:40 p.m. Fleet saw something. Walter Lord writes: “At first it was small (about the size, he thought, of two tables put together), but every second it grew closer and closer. Quickly Fleet banged the crow’s-nest bell three times, the warning of danger ahead. At the same time he lifted the phone and rang the bridge. “What did you see?” asked the voice at the other end. “Iceberg right ahead,” replied Fleet. “Thank you,” acknowledged the voice curiously detached.”(Walter Lord, A Night To Remember-illustrated ed, p.33)
First Officer Murdoch ordered the helm astarboard (to port around the iceberg) and telegraphed to the engine room Full Speed Astern. And then, for reasons we will never know, he changed it to hard aport and reverse engines. Lightoller explained many years later that Murdoch was attempting to swing the bow clear and then put “the helm hard over the other way to swing her stern clear.” (Wyn Craig Wade, The Titanic: End of a Dream, p. 181)
This made the propeller less effective as it burbled the water. Knight’s Seamanship Guide recommends increasing speed to get away rather than slowing. In fact turning away and slowing down would result in a collision. Murdoch’s decision to go hard aport and reverse engines sealed Titanic’s fate. Titanic’s massive size made it difficult to manuver. There was no way it turn in a hurry. Had Murdoch ordered full speed ahead and ordered quartermaster Hitchens to turn hard over, Titanic had a better chance of avoiding collision. Another possibility was to hit the berg head on. It would limit damage to the bow area and less loss of life.
4.2. The Binocular Controversy
Neither Fleet nor Lee had binoculars that night. They were not in the crow’s nest although all lookouts had them on the Belfast-Southampton run. The binoculars for this run were taken by the bridge. Under questioning in the American hearing, Fleet testified he requested binoculars from Second Officer Charles Lightholler who refused to issue them. Binoculars, he states, would have allowed him to see the berg sooner. Lightoller minimized the importance and usefullness of binoculars. “Some keep them glued to their eyes altogether. I consider that very detrimental.” (Wyn Craig Wade, The Titanic: End of a Dream, p. 170-171). The famous Admiral Peary, in an interview in the New York World, supported Fleet’s testimony and binoculars usefulness.
Obviously binoculars are a benefit to seeing objects. Speculation over the years about the curious decision not to have binoculars available has lent itself to all kinds of conspiracy theories. Lightoller’s testimony on the matter tells he did not hold them in high regard. The simplest answer is that Lightoller did not think they were necessary for the lookouts. Hence why they were not issued. It is one of those decisions that contributed to Titanic’s demise.
- What Happened To The Lifeboats?
The surviving lifeboats were returned to service with the White Star Line and on other ships. No record has been found that tells us what ships they ended up on. And WSL repainted the lifeboats with the name of the new ship they were put on so there is no way to know the final disposition of the lifeboats.
- Was The Titanic Racing To Get To New York To Set A Speed Record?
Casual histories of the Titanic disaster often allege that Titanic was being pushed speedwise in an effort to achieve a record trans-Atlantic crossing. This is absolutely untrue, since Titanic was never designed to match the high speed of the Cunard liners Mauretania and Lusitania. However, there is strong evidence that Titanic *was* being pushed in an effort to beat the maiden voyage crossing time of her older sister, the Olympic; survivor Elizabeth Lines overheard Bruce Ismay telling Captain Smith that Titanic would beat the Olympic’s crossing time and arrive in New York ahead of schedule. Indeed, it is now known that Titanic’s last three main boilers were connected up to her engines at 7:30 pm on April 14th, increasing the ship’s speed to 22 1/2 knots just four hours before the collision took place.
- The Issue of Guns-Were They Fired?
Again, the answer to this question is “perhaps.” Survivor George Rheims wrote a private letter in which he mentioned having seen an officer shoot a passenger who was attempting to force his way into a lifeboat. According to Rheims, the officer then bade surrounding witnesses goodbye and shot himself in the temple.
Survivor Eugene Daly wrote a similar letter in which he told of having seen an officer shoot two men who were trying to enter a boat. A moment later Daly heard another shot and saw the officer himself lying on the deck; nearby witnesses told Daly that the officer had shot himself
- Did Murdoch Commit Suicide?
Most 1912 reports alleged that it was First Officer William Murdoch who had taken his own life (although Second Officer Charles Lightoller insisted that these reports were false.) More recent speculation has centered on Chief Officer Henry Wilde, whose movements and activities that night are largely unknown. If the above shooting/suicide actually did take place, however, it is unlikely that we will ever discover the true identity of the officer in question.
Although the movie Cameron’s Titanic shows Murdoch receiving a bribe, no factual evidence exists that he was bribed by any passenger to secure a place on the lifeboats.
- Who Were The Wireless Operators?
The wireless operators (Bride and Philips) were not employed by the White Star Line, but rather by Marconi Wireless Company. While wireless communications were important, the primary use of the Marconi was to transmit private messages. They were under the command of Captain Smith for the purposes of transmitting and receiving important information for the ship. Ordinary messages such as weather reports and ship to ship messages were not given high priority. The Marconi operators did not deliver messages to the bridge. Messages for the captain or the bridge were taken to the Purser’s office for delivery.
- THE ONGOING CONTROVERSY:THE CALIFORNIAN AND THIRD SHIP THEORIES
The controversy over the ship that the survivors saw during the Titanic disaster rages to this day. Some enthusiasts align themselves with the story that the “mystery” ship was in fact the Californian of the Leyland Line, while others argue that it could not possibly be.
Most enthusiasts agree on the following:
- That both the Titanic and the CA were somewhere on the North Atlantic on April 14/15 1912
- That each ship saw another ship on the horizon during the night.
- That distress rockets were sent up from the Titanic.
- That some sort of aerial exploding projectiles were seen from the Californian.
The Lordite Position
The Lordites support the conclusion that the Californian was not the”mystery” ship. Their argument goes something like this:
The two enquiries (US and UK) reached a too-hasty decision regarding the CA. The numerous discrepancies in the testimony from the witnesses from both ships were not thoroughly examined and reconciled. Estimates of time, distance, bearings, lights, sounds, colours, time, etc. are not consistent. The CA was too far away, perhaps as far as 19 to 30 miles away. The ship seen from the Titanic was moving, and the CA was stationary. There might have been one or more ships between the Titanic and the CA.
The Anti-Lordite Position
Those opposing the Lordite viewpoint contest that:
The two enquiries came to the correct conclusion based on the testimony. The numerous discrepancies do not need to be reconciled, as they are minor in comparison with the evidence regarding the rockets. Estimates of time, distance, bearings, etc, are only that, estimates. The respective movements of each ship correspond precisely. The CA was indeed stopped, but swinging her bow with the current, which gave the illusion of motion as seen from the Titanic. The presence of a third ship, real or theoretical, is irrelevant after the CA’s sighting of distress rockets.
The discrepancies and points of argument are too many to list individually here; many books have been written since 1912 covering these various aspects. The above is but a summary of recurring statements given by both sides.
The Mystery Ship
If there was indeed a “mystery” ship, what could it be?
- a) The Californian, because her officers saw 8 rockets at about the same time the Titanic fired a similar number. No ship firing rockets has been discovered in addition to the Titanic and Carpathia (This was the reasoning given by the British BOT Inquiry.)
- b) The Samson (a Norwegian sealer), because of a diary published by her first officer sometime in 1960s. This story largely persists, even though it was rejected by the Lordites themselves as “too speculative” in the late 1960s. The information that the Samson was near the area that night was made by a Samson officer in a typewritten journal. His entry states that his ship was poaching seals in the area and mistook the “emergency rockets” fired by the Titanic as signals to official vessels indicating the presence of the illegal sealer. However further investigation has shown that this 6 knot vessel could not have been in the area and made the ports of call on the dates recorded by harbormasters in those ports of call.
- c) The Mt Temple, from second-hand allegations that one of her officers saw rockets as they approached the icefield around 3:30am.
- d) The names of numerous other ships are often mentioned, but rarely with supportive documentation. Among such names are the Frankfurt, the Dorothy Baird, the Saturnia and the Plymouth.
Californian Incident References
There are numerous published worked with more information on the Californian incident, some of which deal exclusively with this subject. See the book list for complete references.
The Lordites list:-
Leslie Harrison, A TITANIC MYTH.
Peter Padfield, THE TITANIC AND THE CALIFORNIAN.
Eaton & Haas, TITANIC, TRIUMPH & TRAGEDY.
Eaton & Haas, TITANIC: DESTINATION DISASTER.
The Anti-Lordites list:-
Walter Lord, THE NIGHT LIVES ON.(see chapter “A Certain Amount of Slackness.”)
Walter Lord, A NIGHT TO REMEMBER.
Wyn Craig Wade, TITANIC: END OF A DREAM.
Charles Lightoller, TITANIC AND OTHER SHIPS.
Archibald Gracie, THE TRUTH ABOUT THE TITANIC.
Geoffrey Marcus, THE MAIDEN VOYAGE.
Leslie Reade, THE SHIP THAT STOOD STILL.
…and for the balanced viewpoint:-
Michael Davies, TITANIC, DEATH AND LIFE OF A LEGEND.
Lynch & Marschall, TITANIC, an ILLUSTRATED HISTORY.
- Who Owned Titanic?
The Titanic, registered as a British mail ship was really owned by the American railroad tycoon, J.P. Morgan. He had most of the controlling interest in the American railroads and was looking to expand his ownership to seize control of the Atlantic shipping trade. He succeeded in acquiring the White Star Line in 1902. White Star had asked the City of New York to enlarge and extend the piers to accommodate their new super liners and were flatly refused. The City stated that the long piers would extend too far into the Hudson river causing a hazard to navigation. They were subtly persuaded by Morgan who all but owned the docks of New York and had the means to choke the City’s import and export trade.
J.P. Morgan had his very own private suite and promenade deck on the Titanic. He was supposed to join her for her maiden voyage but canceled his passage, sparing him the fate of many of the other millionaires.
- Were Other Icebergs Spotted That Night?
Intriguingly, the answer to this question is “perhaps.” A number of survivors told reporters about discussions in which Titanic’s lookouts admitted having sighted three separate icebergs prior to their sighting of the *fatal* berg. The lookouts were indignant that their warnings to the bridge were not acted upon and that Titanic maintained her high speed despite the danger of a possible collision.
The fact that the above interviews were given to *reporters* instead of to the government Titanic inquiries, however, means that we cannot be absolutely positive about their reliability. Sadly, the question of whether or not the lookouts actually *did* see several icebergs prior to the collision must remain forever uncertain.
13.The Man Who Dressed as a Woman
Rumor has long had it that a male passenger disguised himself in woman’s clothing in order to obtain a seat in a lifeboat and thereby save himself. Historians have long dismissed the above rumor as mere legend, but they are mistaken in doing so; the story *does* have a basis in fact – and it may have occurred more than once!
Steerage passenger Daniel Buckley’s life was saved by a woman who threw a shawl over him in order to keep him from being thrown out of her lifeboat. Another steerage passenger, Ed Ryan, put a towel over his own head like a shawl and entered another lifeboat without arousing the suspicions of nearby crewmen.
And finally, Fifth Officer Lowe personally “unmasked” a man in his own lifeboat who had disguised himself with a shawl.
Truth is stranger than fiction.
- Titanic’s Sister Ships
The Titanic was the second of three large liners intended to work the Southampton-New York “shuttle” service. The sister ships were planned to be near identical.
Launched on 20th October 1910 Olympic was the first of the trio of White Star Liners. Under the command of Captain E.J.Smith (who was later to command the Titanic) she sailed on June 14th 1911 on her Maiden voyage to New York. The Olympic was received well, but on 20th September 1911 she was involved in a collision with cruiser HMS Hawke. After limping back to Belfast she was repaired using components from her sister (Titanic) then under construction. After the Titanic disaster, Olympic underwent various safety improvements including lifeboats for all aboard, and in October 1912 she returned to Belfast again for installation of an inner watertight skin.
On 1st September 1915 the Olympic was requisitioned by the British Government for war service as a troopship. Later she received a coat of dazzle paint designed to confuse enemy observers. Perhaps her most famous exploit of the war years was when she struck and sank a German submarine, U103. After the war she returned to commercial service, and despite her early mishaps, she gained an affectionate following and earned the nickname “Old Reliable”. Her bad luck returned on 15th May 1934 when the Olympic collided with the Nantucket lightship with the loss of 7 lives.
Her last voyage ended in Southamption on April 12th 1935, on 13th October 1935 she arrived at Palmers Yard on the Tyne for breaking up. Her pitiful remains were finally towed to Inverkeithing on 19th September 1937 for final demolition. Fittings from the Olympic were sold off at auction, and to this day it is possible to see them. Notable locations include the White Swan Hotel, Alnwick, England and the famous “Honour and Glory Crowning Time” wood carving can be seen in the Southampton Maritime Museum.
Recommended Reading: RMS Olympic “The Old Reliable” by Simon Mills; Publisher: Waterfront Publications ISBN: 0-946184-79-8
Britannic started life under the cloud of the Titanic disaster, from the start she was expected to be named “Gigantic” but she was built as Britannic, considered by White Star as a lucky name (the White Star Line had three ships named Britannic over the years – HMHS Britannic was the second). In appearance the Britannic resembled the Titanic, having an enclosed promenade A-Deck, but one big difference was the lifeboat davits which were much more prominent on the Britannic.
Below decks, the Britannic was similar to her sisters, but additional safety features (such as a double skin) were “built in” rather than retrofitted. Although her service speed was not intended to be increased, she was fitted with a more powerful turbine capable of developing 18,000HP compared to the 16,000HP of the Olympic, it was the largest marine turbine in the world.
Launched on 26th February 1914, fitting out was delayed by WW1 and financial/industrial difficulties. On 13th November 1915 the Britannic was requisitioned as a hospital ship becoming HMHS (His Majesty’s Hospital Ship) Britannic. Receiving a coat of brilliant white paint, with huge red crosses each lit by 125 lights. On 11th December 1915 she left Belfast and started her short career.
On 8:12am on 21st November 1916 Britannic struck a mine (some still contest it was a torpedo) in the Kea Channel, Aegean sea. Despite her improved safety features, the Britannic began to sink in a cruel copycat of her sister’s end four years earlier. Attempts were made to beach the ship on the nearby island of Kea, but it was not to be. Two lifeboats, launched without authority from the port side were sucked into the propellers and smashed to pieces….the occupants didn’t stand a chance. At 9:07 the stern disappeared beneath the ocean….from that moment the Olympic became the last survivor of White Star’s dream of a three-ship Southampton-New York shuttle. In retrospect, the disaster could have been much worse. If the Britannic had been on a homebound journey with wounded aboard, the loss of life would have been unthinkable.
In 1976 the famous French explorer Cousteau discovered the wreck lying on her side at a depth of 110 meters and recovered a few small objects. Considering the shallow water that the Britannic rests in, and the length of time her position has been know it’s perhaps ironic that the wreck of the Britannic is safer from would-be salvagers than the Titanic. As a requisitioned ship in the service of Crown, the wreck to this day belongs to the British Government.
On 27th August 1995, the British newspaper, The Sunday Express, reported that a team of 12 Greek divers led by Kostos Thoktardis would attempt to raise the wreck. A week later (3rd September 1995) The Sunday Express reported that Paul Louden-Brown wrote to the British Ministry of Defence insisting that representations were made to the Greek Govt to stop Mr Thoktardis’s plans.
Recommended Reading: HMHS Britannic “The Last Titan” by Simon Mills; Publisher: Waterfront Publications ISBN: 0-946184-71-2
SALVAGE OF TITANIC
One of the most controversial debates within the Titanic community is the salvage issue. It has inspired passionate debates on both sides and consumed many bytes in cyberspace on discussion lists and Usenet posts. Like many debates, there is little middle ground between the two. Either you support salvage or you do not.
A) The Pro and Anti-Salvage Argument
B) Salvage Award
C) Titanic Treaty
D) RMS Titanic, Inc Updates
E) Salvage Award And Other Updates
A) The Pro and Anti-Salvage Argument
- The Anti-Salvage Argument
Titanic is a grave. Although other ship disasters have had far greater losses of life, this ship has transcended the time it was in. It has come to represent, as Wyn Craig Wade puts it, the end of a dream. Titanic was a ship of dreams. Those that designed her, built her, and walked aboard her thought it was a pinnacle of Western culture and science. Nothing it was thought could touch this mighty ship named for an ancient race of giants.
And that made the tragedy more profound. It sent echoes through the world and time. No longer would we be so confident of our technology. 1,500 people perished that night that need not have. So let us honor them, the fallen, by not salvaging the ship. Let nature take its course and claim the ship for itself. Bringing up items will not best remember them but rather only serve us wishing to glance at dishes and other assorted trinkets to be brought up. Let it remain a memorial, like the USS Arizona, remembered always but not disturbed.
2. The Pro Salvage Argument
Titanic is not a grave. In fact, sunken ships never are. Ships are often salvaged either by their owners or by others who claim the right to salvage. It is a time honored tradition that goes long back to ancient times. Salvage of Titanic seeks to bring up items that will remind people of the lives lost on this great ship.
Instead of just seeing pictures and reading about, you can stand at an exhibit and look at items from someone’s trip aboard Titanic. It makes the loss more real, more tangible. So salvage serves to honor those who died by retrieving artifacts for historical preservation rather than decaying on the sea floor.
B) SALVAGE AWARD
In 1994 a company called RMS Titanic, Inc obtained full salvage rights from a federal judge in Virginia. The award granted RMSTI total rights, including photographic and navigation. Many people often wonder how a U.S. federal court can exert jurisdiction over a wreck in international waters.
Article III of the Constitution grants federal courts the power in “all Cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction.” Since maritime law involved commerce both on the state and international levels, the framers made sure that disputes involving this area would be handled by the federal court.
Now when the framers wrote this there already was a body of law loosely called “venerable law of the sea” that maritime nations had been using since ancient times. Space does not permit an extant examination but suffice to say that maritime law goes back to the Romans, and before them to the ancient city of Rhodes. Now that does not mean that federal courts are bound by an overarching law of the sea. Instead the framers gave the federal courts jurisdiction but the ability to develop it as well.
In 1987 a company called Titanic Ventures recovered over 1800 artifacts from the debris field. Later this company sold its interest in salvage and the artifacts to RMSTI in 1993. RMSTI conducted its own salvage and brought up 800 artifacts. It commenced legal action to obtain salvage rights in August 1993 in the Eastern District Court of Virginia.
In support of their legal action, RMSTI noted that numerous artifacts from Titanic were within Virginia. The court then ordered U.S. Marshal to “arrest the wreck and all artifacts salvaged. ” As such the U.S. Marshal became custodian of the wreck during the legal action.
One challenge to application for salvage was made by Liverpool and London Steamship Protection and Indemnity Association. Liverpool and London filed an interest in the wreck owing to the insurance it paid out in claims after the disaster in 1912. In June 1994 Liverpool and London and RMSTI entered into a settlement agreement and the claim was dismissed. RMSTI was then awarded sole rights to Titanic
Interestingly a challenge was made by another competing salvager, John Josyln in 1996. He challenged RMSTI’s status as exclusive salvager of Titanic and requested the court reverse its decision. Josyln argued that the company was not diligent in salvaging the ship and lacked financial resources to do so. His motion was dismissed after a hearing in 1996.
In awarding salvage rights to RMSTI, the federal judge followed a principle of maritime law called IN REM. This is the most common method of enforcing a salvage claim and requires the court have exclusive custody and control over the property it is claiming jurisdiction. RMSTI presented evidence to the court that artifacts from Titanic were in the court’s jurisdiction (meaning physically in Virginia). Thus, by extension the wreck itself was within jurisdiction of the court as well. Although the wreck itself lies in international waters, as long as other nations agree on how to apply the law, no dispute exists.
Nations generally agree that a wreck in international waters can, under maritime law, be brought under another nation’s jurisdiction.
A New Turn
In 1998 a company called Deep Ocean Explorations along with a British travel agency offered diving tours to Titanic. The tours offered passengers (paying close to $30,000) the ability to dive down to the wreck, view it, and even photograph it. No salvage would be attempted. It was strictly a view dive.
RMSTI immediately went to court and obtained an injunction against Deep Ocean citing the original award in 1994. In that award, it states the following is prohibited:
“Conducting search, survey or salvage operations, or obtaining any image, photographing or recovering any objects, entering, or causing to enter….”
Deep Ocean and another litigant in the matter, challenged the court’s jurisdiction over the wreck in a lawsuit filed in the court. The federal judge upheld the original award to RMSTI and some other legal issues. Deep Ocean appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit.
On April 28, 1999 the Appeals Court published its decision. On the key issue of whether or not the court had proper jurisdiction over the wreck, the higher court confirmed the award. However it reversed the lower court award regarding visiting and photographing the wreck. The Appeals Court found that the original award was too broad and noted that you can own a building but not its photograph rights. As long as viewing or photographing the wreck does not constitute salvage, the court concluded it does not interfere with RMSTI’s salvage rights.
In September 1999 it was reported that RMSTI has filed an appeal with the U.S Supreme Court. RMSTI argued that photographs of the wreck would impinge on its ability to make money. If it cannot make money, then its ability to salvage would be affected. Opposition papers by marine scientists and others argue that such a total ban would severely restrict genuine historical research.
The U.S. Supreme Court denied review of the case in September 1999.
C) TITANIC TREATY
After the discovery of the wreck in 1985, the U.S. Congress passed the Titanic Memorial Act. The act calls for the creation of a treaty to protect the “scientific, cultural, and historical significance of RMS Titanic.” Additionally, the act requests that pending such a treaty, that no one physically alter or disturb or salvage Titanic. However, since this was a sense of Congress and not a law, this did not prevent anyone from claiming salvage rights on the wreck. The possible signatory nations to the treaty-Canada, Great Britain, France-were not interested.
According to the record though, they became interested after salvage rights were awarded in 1994 to RMS Titanic Inc. a private company that intended to make money from salvaging the wreck. While the company has never sold artifacts (and claims it would only sell them as a collection to a museum), the activities of the company have caused considerable concern and consternation within the Titanic community.
Talks concerning the treaty began in 1995. The stated reason according to NOAA was in part “based on information about the commercial salvage of RMS Titanic and the exhibition of recovered artifacts in the British National Maritime Museum.” In February of 1995, the British National Maritime Museum sponsored a conference of experts to discuss proction of Titanic wreck and other historical wrecks. A second conference was held in January 1996 which resulted in the Greenwich Declaration.
According to NOAA, the significance of protecting Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) was realized. “The significance of UCH to humankind was recognized, as was the threat of its irrevocable loss unless its disturbance or removal is conducted in accordance with best archaeological practices and under the supervision of national authorities having jurisdiction over such activities. While Titanic was an impetus for the conferences, the focus was to provide protection for all UCH. The preparation of an international instrument by UNESCO for the protection of UCH was discussed as was the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) International Charter on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage. At both conferences there were also informal discussions on the international agreement and guidelines for research on, exploration of, and if determined appropriate, salvage of RMS Titanic.”
Negotiations between the nations took place from 1997 -2000 with the final draft released on 5 Jan 2000. An agreement was reached in 2003 and the United Kingdom signed the agreement after passing The Protection of Wrecks (RMS Titanic) Order 2003 under the Merchant Shipping Act. On 15 April 2012, the Titanic wreck came under the protection of UNESCO based on the 2001Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, which protects cultural, historical, or archaeological objects that have been underwater for 100 years.
In 2019, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo notified that the treaty was ratified and deposited the instrument of ratification with the United Kingdom. With two parties to the agreement, it came into effect as it only required two out of the four parties to ratify. The treaty requires both countries to:
Regulate persons and vessels under their jurisdictions to either grant or deny licenses to enter the shipwreck to remove items from.
Canada and France have yet to formally ratify the treaty but discussions for them to join are ongoing.
D) RMS TITANIC, INC HISTORY AND UPDATES
1999 Hostile Takeover of RMS Titanic Inc.
Ownership of RMS Titanic, Inc has changed significantly over the years from its original founders. In 1999 investors from SFX Entertainment along with its co-founder G. Michael Harris and Arnie Geller, led a hostile takeover of the company. They ousted George Tulloch and Geller became the CEO and President of the company. Harris became Chief Operating Officer and Secretary of the company. All other officers and directors were fired except for John Joslyn. This alarmed many in the Titanic community and some of the countries involved with the protection of the wreck. George Tulloch sued and was awarded $2.5 million in damages. More alarming to many were words made by one of the new investors about cutting into the Titanic’s hull to retrieve more artifacts and increase profits.
2004 Premiere Exhibitions Created
In October 2004 the company changed its name to Premier Exhibitions. Its stock ticker was changed and branched out to host other exhibitions by acquiring the Universe Within Touring Company, LLC. One of the big money makers for Premiere was The Body exhibits that had 19 separate human anatomy exhibitions at 33 venues. Titanic artifacts were also exhibited as well through various venues. Unfortunately, the Bodies exhibition generated a lot of controversy as well owing to charges that body parts came from Chinese prisons and the families never gave permission to use the body parts.
2008-2009: Geller Forced Out
Mark Sellers, a 16% shareholder in Premiere Exhibitions, issued a press release on 6 Nov 2008 demanding the resignation of Premier CEO Arnie Geller. He accused him for taking $1.2 million in compensation as shareholders saw the stock price plunge to under $2.00 a share (it once had been at $17). Geller refused and a proxy war erupted with Sellers’ firm nominating its own candidates for company directors. In January 2009, Sellers won and was appointed as an unpaid non-executive chairman. He promptly fired Geller.
2009-2016: New Exhibits, Bankruptcy and New Owners
From 2009- 2013, Premier introduced new exhibits and seemed to be making money. But in August 2016, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. In its press statement, the company indicated that need to develop a comprehensive restructuring plan to pay employees and honor its commitments to museum partners.
On December 21, 2018, the United States District Court for the Easter District of Virginia approved the sale by the Debtors of the stock in RMS Titanic, Inc. to Premier Acquisition Holdings, LLC (” PAHL”), the entity which was the successful bidder in the Bankruptcy Court for the assets of Premier Exhibitions. They also acquired ownership to the Titanic artifacts as well (see below for more information in Salvage Award section).
E) SALVAGE AND OTHER UPDATES
In 2004 the company petitioned the district court in Virginia for a salvage award for all the artifacts it brought up. It tried and failed to be labeled finder under maritime law rather than salvor-in-possession. On 12 August 2010, Judge Rebecca Beach Smith ruled that the company was due fair market value for the artifacts but deferred the ownership and conservation questions to 2011.
Her ruling on 15 August 2011 granted title to the artifacts subject to a list of conditions for preservation and disposition of the artifacts. Her ruling requires that the artifacts be sold as a collection and not individually. And those that bought them would have to abide by a lengthy list of conditions and restrictions. Premier sought buyers for the artifact collection but the enormous cost limited potential buyers to consortiums. Some museums were interested and did band together to raise money. However, they could not raise the millions needed.
On October 11, 2018 the artifacts were put up for sale during the bankruptcy proceedings with a minimum bid of $21.4 million dollars. This was required under law as a bid had been submitted to the court:
Currently, a consortium of hedge funds, including Apollo Global Management, LLC, Alta Fundamental Advisors, LLC, and PacBridge Capital Partners (HK) Ltd. have submitted an offer to buy the company’s assets for $19.5M, being treated as a bid floor. Unless a competing buyer steps forward, the company’s assets, including the entire Titanic collection, will be sold to this group for its $19.5M bid. As per the bidding procedures, a new buyer needs to submit, by October 5, 2018 at 4:00 p.m., a qualifying preliminary bid of at least $21.5M to enter the auction. ( RMS Titanic, Inc., et al).
Being no competing offer, the artifacts became the property of the new owners, who plan to exhibit them as was done in the past.
Marconi Radio Salvage (2020)
RMS Titanic, Inc decided some years back that it would no longer return to Titanic. It then decided to get a formal salvage award declared so they would have full title and possibly sell the artifacts. However, in 2020 the company decided that due to the deteriorating state of the wreck, that it desired to retrieve the Marconi wireless equipment from Titanic. They argued that they could do this with minimal damage and would seek nothing else. Judge Rebecca Smith granted their request after a hearing on the matter. Subsequent to that, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) filed an appeal arguing against the retrieval. They argue, among other things, that it violates the Titanic treaty.
Dives to Titanic Resume in 2021
OceanGate Expeditions announced on 13 October 2020 that it will resume dives to Titanic in 2021. Using a Cyclops class submersible, it will take expedition experts and researchers down to see the wreck. They plan six 10-day Mission Specialists. Mission Specialists can be any member of the public willing to pay the fee (around $9,600) to be part of the expedition. According to the press release:
Alongside a team of experts, Mission Specialists will be trained as crewmembers and will serve hands-on roles in documenting important features of the historic site that lies 3,800 meters (12,467 feet) below the ocean’s surface. This expedition will capture laser scans and 4K video that will be combined with high-resolution images to create a photorealistic virtual 3-D model of the shipwreck.
This is a select bibliography of Titanic and related topics. It is not an exhaustive list of every book on the subject. Check your favorite bookstore for new books on the subject. Note that some books here are out of print but may be located in many libraries and used bookstores.
Archibold, Rick & McCauley, Dana LAST DINNER ON THE TITANIC, Madison Press, Toronto, 1997. This is a collection of recipes served on the Titanic. Note: Many of these meals are not for those on diets!
Armstrong, Warren, LAST VOYAGE, The John Day Company, New York, New York, First American Edition, 1958
Ballard, Robert D., THE BISMARK FOUND, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, Washington D.C. Vol 176 No. 5 Nov. 1989
Ballard, Robert D., THE DISCOVERY OF THE BISMARCK, Madison Press Books, Toronto, Ontario Canada, 1990
Ballard, Robert D., EXPLORING THE TITANIC, Madison Press, New York, New York, 1988
Ballard, Robert D., EPILOGUE FOR TITANIC, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, Washington D.C., Vol 172 No. 4, Oct 1987
Ballard, Robert D., A LONG LAST LOOK AT TITANIC, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., Vol 170 No. 9, Dec 1989
Ballard, Robert D., HOW WE FOUND THE TITANIC, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, Washington D.C., Vol 168, No. 6, Dec 1985
Beesley, Lawrence, THE LOSS OF THE S.S. TITANIC, Hoghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, 1912
Behe, George & Goss, Michael, LOST AT SEA, Prometheus Books, 1994. This book is a critical examination of many myths and legends of lost ships, ghost ships and other things. It skeptically examines many myths surrounding the Titanic (chapter 6). A good read for those who want to know the truth about many legends of the sea.
Behe, George, TITANIC: PSYCHIC FOREWARNINGS OF A TRAGEDY, Aquarian Press, 1988 (Went out of print in 1992)
Behe, George, TITANIC TIDBITS ONE, THE LAUNCHING OF THE LIFEBOATS, A NEW CHRONOLOGY, (Paper available by George Behe though THS)
Behe, George, TITANIC TIDBITS TWO, “THE BRIDGE PAID NO ATTENTION TO MY SIGNALS”, (Paper Available by George Behe though THS)
Behe, George TITANIC: SAFETY, SPEED AND SACRIFICE, Transportation Trails, Polo, IL 1997
Blank, Joseph P., LAST CRUISE OF THE PRINSENDAM, Reader’s Digest, Pleasentville, NY. Nov. 1983
Bonsall, Thomas, TITANIC, Gallery Books, New York, New York, 1987
Boston Daily Globe, Tuesday, Morning, April 16, 1912 (copy)
Boston Daily Globe, Tuesday, Evening, April 16, 1912 (copy)
Braynard, Frank O., & Miller, Willian H. Jr., PICTURE HISTORY OF THE CUNARD LINE 1840-1990, Dover Publications, Inc, New York, New York, 1991
Braynard, Frank O. STORY OF THE TITANIC, POSTCARDS, Dover Publications, Toronto Ontario Canada, 1988
Bride, Harold, THRILLING TALE BE TITANIC’S SURVIVING WIRELESS MAN, New York Times, April 28, 1912 (COPY)
Bryceson, Dave THE TITANIC DISASTER AS REPORTED IN THE BRITISH NATIONAL PRESS APRIL-JULY 1912 Norton & Company, New York, 1997
Butler, Daniel UNSINKABLE: THE FULL STORY, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania 1998
Butler, David, LUSITANIA, Random House, New York, New York, 1982
Cameron, Stephen TITANIC, BELFAST’S OWN, Wolfhound Press, Dublin, Ireland 1998
Chidsey, Donald Barr, SHACKLETON’S VOYAGE, Universal Publishing, New York, New York, 1967 (First print Soft Cover)
Culver, Henry B. & Grant, Gordon, FOURTY FAMOUS SHIPS, Garden City Publishing Co., Inc, New York, New York, 1936
Cussler, Clive, RAISE THE TITANIC, Bantam Books, New York, New York, Oct 1977 (Soft-cover Bantam First Print) (2 Copies)
Cussler, Clive, RAISE THE TITANIC, Vicking Press, New York, New York, (Frist hard cover edition) 1976
Davie, Michael, TITANIC THE DEATH AND LIFE OF A LEGEND, Henry Holt & Company, New York, New York, 1988
Davis, Chris, TITANIC LOST AND FOUND, Popular Mechanics, The Hearst Corporation, New York, New York, January 1986 edition
Daily Echo, THE GREAT LINERS, POSTERS FROM A GOLDEN AGE, Southern Newspapers, Southampton, England, Sunday, November 19, 1994
Daily Echo, 60 GLORIOUS YEARS, THE QUEEN MARY SOUTHAMPTON DOCKS, Southern Newspapers, Southampton, England, Sunday September 17, 1994
Day, Beth, PASSAGE PERILOUS, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, New York, 1962
DISCOVERIES OF THE DEEP, Capstone Software, Division of Intracorp, Miami, Fl 1993
Dodge, Washington, THE LOSS OF THE TITANIC, 7 C’s Press, Inc, Riverside, CT. (An Address Delivered to the Commonwealth Club, San Francisco, May 11, 1912)
Dugan, James, THE GREAT IRON SHIP, Harper & Brothers, New York, New York, 1953
Eaton, John P. & Haas, Charles, FALLING STAR, MISADVENTURES OF WHITE STAR LINE SHIPS, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York, First American Edition 1990,
Eaton, John P. & Haas, Charles, TITANIC DESTINATION DISASTER, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York, First edition, 1987
Eaton John P. & Haas, Charles, TITANIC TRIUMPH AND TRAGEDY, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, New York, First Edition, 1986
Eaton John P. & Haas Charles, TITANIC TRIUMPH AND TRAGEDY, SECOND EDITION, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York, 1995 First American Edition
Eppinger, Josh, THE PRINSENDAM FIRE, HISTORY’S GREATEST SEA RESCUE, Popular Mechanics, The Hearst Corporation, New York, New York, April 1981
Everett, Marshall, WRECK AND SINKING OF THE TITANIC, L.H. Walter, New York, New York, 1912
Eyman, Scott, I TOOK A VOYAGE ON THE RMS TITANIC,(Marjorie Newell Robb, Titanic Survivor), Yankee Magazine, Yankee Publishing Co, Dublin, NH, June 1981
Foster, C.S., SINK THE BISMARK, Bantam, Books, Little Brown & Co, New York, New York, Dec. 1959, (Soft-cover 3rd print)
Gallagher, Thomas, FIRE AT SEA, The story of The Morro Castle, Rinehart & Company, Inc. New York, New York, 1959 (Hardcover)
Gannon, Robert WHAT REALLY SUNK THE TITANIC, Popular Science, New York, New York February 1995 edition
Gardiner, Martin ed. THE WRECK OF THE TITANIC FORETOLD? Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY 1998
Geller, Judith TITANIC:WOMEN AND CHILDREN FIRST, Norton & Company, New York 1998
Gracie, Archibald, THE TRUTH ABOUT THE TITANIC, MitchellKennerly, 1913
Hart, Eva & Denney Ronald C., SHADOW OF THE TITANIC, SURVIVOR’S STORY, Biography of Miss Eva Hart, Greenwich, University Press, Dartford, England, 1994
Harris, Rene, HER HUSBAND WENT DOWN WITH THE TITANIC, America An Illustrated Dairy of Its Most Exciting Years, Memoirs & Memories Book One, American Family Enterprises, Inc. New York, New York, 1973
Hickling, Hugh, FALCONER’S VOYAGE, Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston, MA, 1956, (Hardcover First ed.)
Hill, Ralph Nading, ROBERT FULTON & THE STEAMBOAT, Random House Inc, New York, New York, 1954 (Hardcover)
Heyer, Paul, TITANIC LEGACY: DISASTER AS MEDIA EVENT AND MYTH, Praeger Publications, Westport, CT, 1995
Hoffer, Willian SAVED, THE STORY OF THE ANDREA DORIA, Summit Books, Simon & Schuster, New York, New York, 1979
Horgan, Thomas, OLD IRONSIDES, Burdette & Company, Inc., Boston, Ma., 1963
Howells, Richard THE MYTH OF THE TITANIC, St. Martin’s Press, New York 1999 (Also published in England under the same title)
Hutching, David F. RMS TITANIC, 75 YEARS OF LEGEND, Kingfisher Publications, Hampshire, England Sixth edition, Sept 1990
Hutchinson, Gillian, THE WRECK OF THE TITANIC, National Maritime Museum, Addax Publishing, Inc. Tonbridge, Kent England, 1994
Innes, Hammond, THE WRECK OF THE MARY DEARE, Curtis Publishing Co, New York, New York, 1956
Lightoller, Commander Charles H., TITANIC, 7 C’s Press, Inc., Riverside, CT
Lightoller, Commander Charles, TITANIC AND OTHER SHIPS, Ivor, Nicholson & Watson, 1935
Lord, Walter, A NIGHT TO REMEMBER, Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, New York, 1955. Multiple revisions and reprints, notably Illustrated editions (1976,1977,1978 etc)
Lord, Walter, THE NIGHT LIVES ON, Willian Morrow and Company, New York, New York, 1986 (First Edition)
Lord, Walter, THE NIGHT LIVES ON, Jove Books, New York, New York, Nov 1987, (Frist Soft cover edition)
Louden-Brown, Paul, THE WHITE STAR LINE, AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY 1870-1934, Ship Pictorial Publications, Coltishall, Norfolk, England, 1991
Lynch, Don & Marshall Ken, TITANIC AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY, Madison Press Books, Toronto, Ontario Canada, 1992
Maddocks, Melvin, THE GREAT LINERS, Time-Life Books, Alexandria, VA, 1978
Macdonald, Fiona & Wooddroffe, MAKE A MODEL OF THE TITANIC, Chatham River Books, New York, New York, 1989
MacInnis, Dr. Joseph, TITANIC IN A NEW LIGHT, (IMAX COMPANION), Thomasson-Grant, Inc. Charlottsville VA, 1992
Marcus, Geoffrey, THE MAIDEN VOYAGE, Manor Books, Inc., New York, New York, 1977
Marschall, Ken ART OF TITANIC, Hyperion, New York, 1998
Marshall, Logan, SINKING OF THE TITANIC AND GREAT SEA DISASTERS, L.T. Myers, New York, New York, 1912
Marshello, A.F.J., TITANIC TRIVIA, A.F.J. Marshello, (Available through THS) 1987
McCaughan, Michael, TITANIC, Ulstur Folk and Transport Museum, Belfast, Ireland, 1982
Miller, Willian H., Jr., FAMOUS OCEAN LINER, PHOTO POSTCARDS, Dover Publications, Inc, New York, New York, 1988
Miller, William H. Jr. THE FIRST GREAT OCEAN LINERS, IN PHOTOGRAPHS, 1897-1927, Dover Publications, Inc. New York, New York, 1984
Miller, William H., Jr., THE GREAT LUXURY LINERS, A PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD, 1927-1954, Dover Publications, Inc. New York, New York, 1981
Miller, Willian H., Jr. GREAT CRUISE SHIPS AND OCEAN LINERS, FROM 1954 TO 1986 A PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDY, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, New York, 1988
Miller, William H., NEW YORK SHIPPING, Carmania Press, London, England, 1994
Mills, Simon, HMHS BRITANNIC THE LAST TITAN, Waterfront Publications, Dorset, England 1992
Moscow, Alvin, COLLISION COURSE, The Andrea Doria and the Stockholm, G.P. Putnam & Sons, New York, New York, 1959 (Hard Cover)
Mowbray, Jay Henry, SINKING OF THE TITANIC, Geo. W. Bertron, New York, New York, 1912
O’Donnell, E.E. SJ. , THE LAST DAYS OF THE TITANIC:PHOTOGRAPHS AND MEMOS OF THE TRAGIC MAIDEN VOYAGE, Roberts Rinehart, Niwot, CO 1997. Originally published by Wolfhound Press, Dublin, Ireland. [The European title is FATHER BROWNE’S TITANIC ALBUM: A PASSENGER’S PHOTOGRAPHS AND PERSONAL MEMOIR]
OLYMPIC & TITANIC OCEAN LINERS OF THE PAST, Patrick Sevens Limited & Shipping World and Shipbuilder, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England, Original Copyright 1911 Third Edition 1988
Paddfield, Peter, THE TITANIC AND THE CALIFORNIAN, The John Day Company, New York, New York, First Edition, 1966
Oxford, Edward, THE TITANIC REMEMBERED, SHIP OF FASCINATION, AND TITANIC FIRST PYRAMID IN THE SEA, American History Illustrated, Historical Times, Inc, Harrisburg, PA, Volume XXI Nu. 2 April 1986
Pellegrino, Charles, HER NAME TITANIC, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York, New York, 1988 (Hard cover)
Pellegrino, Charles, HER NAME TITANIC, Avon Books, The Hearst Corporation, New York, New York, 1988 (Soft Cover)
Pellegrino, Charles GHOSTS OF TITANIC, William Morrow, New York, 2000
Reade, Leslie THE SHIP THAT STOOD STILL
Readers Digest, Editors of, THE UNSINKABLE TITANIC, Reader’s Digest, Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., Pleasentville, NY, April 1986
Revkin, Andrew, FATHOMING THE MYSTERIES OF THE LUSITANIA, TV Guide, Volume 42 No. 15, Issue #2141, April 9-15,1994
Robertson, Morgan THE WRECK OF THE TITAN OR FUTILITY, Bucaneer Books, Cutchogue, New York 1994 [Originally published 1898]
SEARCH FOR THE TITANIC, Capstone Software a Division of Intracorp, Inc, Miami, Fl 1989
Sceptre Records, Limited “COME ABOARD! QE2, A voyage in sound of the new Cunard Queen Elizabeth 2”, London, Engalnd 1967
Shaw, Frank, FULL FATHOM FIVE, A BOOK OF FAMOUS SHIPWRECKS, The Macmillan Company, New York, New York, 1930
Smith, Senator William Alden, LOSS OF THE STEAMSHIP TITANIC, (REPORT AS CONDUCTED BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT), Washington Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1912, Re-Print 7 C’s Press, Riverside, CT, 1975
Smith, Senator William Alden & Rayner, Senator Isidor, TITANIC
DISASTER, REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE UNITED STATES SENATE, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1912. Re-Print 7 C’s Press, Riverside, CT, 1975
Spignesi, Stephen THE COMPLETE TITANIC: FROM THE SHIPS EARLIEST BLUEPRINTS TO THE EPIC FILM 1998
Steamship Historical Society of America, Inc, STEAMBOAT BILL, 6321 Merle Place, Alexandria, VA 22312 Number 106, Summer 1968
Siwek, Thomas, TITANIC, THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO BUILDING THE TITANIC, Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH Hohenzollerning 53, D-50672, Koln, Germany, 1993
Stormer, Susanne, GOOD-BYE, GOOD LUCK, THE BIOGRAPHY OF WILLIAM MCMASTER MURDOCH, Susanne Stormer, Raiffeisenweg 11, 24354 Kosel Germany 1995 (limited edition of 500 copies, signed and numbered)
Thayer, John B., THE SINKING OF THE S.S. TITANIC, 7 C’s Press, Inc., Riverside, Ct. First Published 1940, 7 C’s Press 1974
Thomas, Gordon & witts, Max Morgan, SHIPWRECK, THE STRANGE FATE OF THE MORRO CASTLE, Dell Publishing Company, New York, New York, 1972
Thresh, Peter, TITANIC, THE TRUTH BEHIND THE DISASTER, Crescent Books, New York, New York, 1992 (Hardcover)
Trevor, Elleston, GALE FORCE, Macmillann CO, New York, New York, 1957, (Hardcover)
Villers, Capt. Alan, MEN SHIPS AND THE SEA, National Geographic Book Service, Washington D.C., Second Edition, 1973
Wade, Wyn Craig, THE TITANIC END OF A DREAM, Penquin Books, Wade Publishers, New York, New York, 1979
Wall, Robert, OCEAN LINERS, E.P. Dutton New York, New York, 1977
Wels, Susan TITANIC: LEGACY OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST OCEAN LINER, Tehabi Books, New York 1997
Wetterholm, Claes-Goran, TITANICS SKATTER, SJOHISTORISKA MUSEET, Statens Sjohistoriska Museum, Tryckeri Am Grafisak Press, Stockholm Sweden, (Softcover book in swedish for swedish expidition of artifacts)
White Star Lines, OLYMPIC & TITANIC, THE LARGEST VESSELS IN THE WORLD, The Liverpool Printing & Stationary Co, 1911, Re-Print by Ulster Folk & Transport Museum, Belfast, Ireland, 1987
White Star Lines, FIRST CLASS RATES AND PLANS, May, 1913, Re-Print by 7 C’s Press, Inc., Riverside, CT
White Star Lines, FIRST CLASS PASSAGE RATES, OLYMPIC & TITANIC, January, 1912, Re-Print by 7 C’s Press, Springfield, MA
White Star Lines, THE LARGEST STEAMERS IN THE WORLD, OLYMPIC & TITANIC, 1911 Re-Print 7 C’s Press, Inc. Riverside, CT
White Star Lines, OLYMPIC & TITANIC, CUTAWAY, 1912, Re-Print By 7 C’s Press, Inc., Riverside, CT
White Star Lines, THE WORLDS LARGEST & FINEST STEAMERS, NEW TRIPLE SCREW, S.S. OLYMPIC & TITANIC, 1911, Re-Print 7 C’s Press, Inc. Riverside CT
Winocour, Jack, THE STORY OF THE TITANIC AS TOLD BY ITS SURVIVORS, Dover Publications, Inc, New York, New York, 1960
Wreck Commissioner’s Court, ON A FORMAL INVESTIGATION ORDERED BY THE BOARD OF TRADE INTO THE LOSS OF THE S.S. TITANIC, His Majesty’s Stationery Office, Jas Truscott & Son, London,England, 1912 (Complete testiomony)
TITANIC: THE OFFICIAL STORY. Reproductions of various historical documents from the archives of the Public Record Office in London. This can be obtained from the public record office at www.open.gov.uk/pro/titanic.htm. Also many bookstores carry this as well
MOVIE & VIDEO LIST
1912-“Saved From The Titanic” (Silent-No Longer Exists)
1943-“Titanic” (Nazi Propaganda Film)
1958-“A Night To Remember”
1980-“Raise The Titanic”
1997-“Titanic” (James Cameron)
1956-“A Night To Remember” (NBC-Kraft Television Theater)
1979-“S.O.S. Titanic” (ABC)
Titanic Related TV Series Episodes
1958 One Step Beyond-“April 14th”
1966 The Time Tunnel-“Rendezvous With Yesterday”
1971 Night Gallery-“Lone Survivor”
1982 Voyagers-“Voyagers Of The Titanic”
TV/Films With Titanic Cameos
1964-“The Unsinkable Molly Brown”
1976-“Upstairs Downstairs” (BBC)
1995-“No Greater Love” (TV Movie)
A & E Titanic Special (1994)-Probably the best of all. Available as 4 video cassettes. Also on DVD.
Calypso’s search for the Britannic
Echos of the Titanic (Ray Johnson)
Great Liners (WHSmith in UK, PBS in USA)
I Witness Video, Eva Hart (1992)
Memories of the Titanic (By THS)
National Geographic, Search for Battleship Bismarck (1990)
National Geographic, Last Voyage of the Lusitania (1994)
National Geographic, Secrets of the Titanic (1987)
Olympic Titanic Britannic (Spa Films)
QE2 The Queen of the Seas
QE2 The Last Great Liner (WHSmith in UK)
Queen Mary – A Legend of the Atlantic (Kingfisher)
Secrets of the Unknown, The Titanic
The Learning Channel’s version of above
Secrets of Survival, Andria Doria (1992)
S.O.S. Titanic (1979)
Treasures of the Titanic (1992)
The Making of a Night to Remember (1994)
The Story of Captain Smith and the Titanic (Ray Johnson)
Titanic (WHSmith in UK)
Titanic – A Question of Murder (TVS)
Titanic – Remembered (1992 BTS convention)
Titanic – Nightmare and the Dream (TVS)
Titanic – Treasures of the Deep (1993)
Titanic – Voices (Southampton sound archives)
Transatlantic Queen Elizabeth 2 (Nota Bene – 1992)
Treasures of the Titanic (1992)
The Final Voyage (1960)
Titanic: The Survivor’s Story. (1997)
Steve Sweeney: Base text
David Wong : Corrections
John Davis: List help and archives
Steve Anderson: Book and video lists
Phil Hayward: Original keeper of this FAQ.
David Billnitzer: Californian section
George Behe: General background
Mark Taylor: Salvage Award/X-Files Section*
*The X-Files Section will be put into a separate page on this site.
Questions and corrections should be submitted to firstname.lastname@example.org.